The Biomass Research and Development Board (Board) coordinates research and development activities concerning biobased fuels, products, and power across federal agencies, and aims to maximize the benefits of federal programs and bring coherence to federal strategic planning. The Board meets quarterly and is currently comprised of members from the Departments of Energy, Agriculture, Interior, Transportation, Defense, and the Environmental Protection Agency, the National Science Foundation, and the Office of Science and Technology Policy. See Board Members.

In October 2008, the Board released its National Biofuels Action Plan (NBAP) that outlined the areas where interagency cooperation would best help biofuels technologies move from "promising ideas to competitive solutions." In 2012, the Board released an update to the NBAP, which focused on advanced hydrocarbon fuels, the inclusion of algae as a potential biomass feedstock, and new issues of sustainability among other key updates.The Board also formed several working groups, and directed them to develop reports and other products aimed to better coordinate federal interagency efforts as well as to identify specific barriers to commercialization across the biofuel supply chain. See Working Groups.

As of September 2010, the Board approved an updated interagency work plan of activities reports through 2011 that are geared toward addressing these identified barriers to ultimately advance biofuels market expansion. Guided by an Operations Committee, working groups comprised of expert mid- senior- level career staff across member agencies have planned such interagency activities as workshops, white papers, regular coordination meetings, and status briefs to report to the Board. See Materials.